.5 linear feet
No access restrictions. Gift of Patricia H. Thurston, 1996.
Processed February 1997 by archive staff.
Copyright: Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be discussed with the archivist or librarian.
This collection was in Mrs. Patricia Thurston's family for a number of years. The photograph collection was originally kept by her grandmother's aunt, Lydia Vose Buck Snow, the wife of Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow. It appears as if the materials were maintained by Lydia Vose Buck Snow, the second child of Ebenezer Buck and Mehitable Vose Buck; Mrs. Patricia Thurston notes that the photographs used to be kept in a small album compiled by her great-great aunt, Lydia Vose Buck Snow. PT's genealogical research centered around this family line and it was decided to create an artificial collection around LVBS, since she appeared to be the person responsible for compiling the bulk of the collection and inspiring later genealogical writings.
The American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missionaries (ABCFM) was organized in 1810 by the General Association of Congregational Churches in Massachusetts and officially chartered in 1812. The individuals represented in the Snow's photo collection are almost entirely early Protestant missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands and the Micronesian Islands, ca. mid-to-late 19th century; most appear to have been sent by the ABCFM. Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow, 1817-1887, Lydia Vose Buck Snow 1820-1887, Luther Halsey Gulick, MD, 1830-1891, Louisa Mitchell Lewis Gulick, 1830-1894, Rev. Albert A. Sturges, 1819-1887 and Susan Mary Thompson Sturges, 1820-1894, started the first ABCFM Micronesian mission. The photographs represent their friends and family, mostly missionaries in the region. See Appendix A for biographies and/or family histories, arranged alphabetically by family name.
The ABCFM sent groups or "companies" to the Hawaiian Islands; the first company arrived in 1819. The ABCFM began withdrawing its support in 1845 and completed in 1863. The missionaries included teachers, physicians, printers and farmers; the women typically taught school to the adults and children of the islands and assisted with translation of religious and educational materials. The companies formed tightly knit community that were typically American.
Native congregations typically had American missionaries as pastors; Kawaiahao and Kaumakapili in Honolulu and Haili at Hilo are examples of these congregations. The missionaries established the Punahou school in 1841; it was initially founded for missionary children, in order to end the practice of sending them to New England at age 6-7 for schooling. Lahainaluna Seminary was founded in 1831 and Hilo Boarding School was founded in 1836 to educate Native Hawaiians. These schools were based on a new concept in education, industrial education, an idea used by the son of a missionary, General Samuel C. Armstrong, to found Hampton Institute in Virginia. Missionaries also established the Seamen's Chapel in Honolulu, supported by the American Seamen's Friend Society, ABCFM and other sources that included the British government. The new settlers also introduced new diseases; note the affect of smallpox on the Ponape population in 1854 in Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow's biography.
See the Edward T. and Clara Strong Doane Papers, 1865-1890 (MS 2405) for biographies of Edward T. Doane, 1820-1890, and Clara Strong Doane, ca. 1845-1878, missionaries to the Micronesian and Hawaiian Islands and Kobe, Japan.
Missionary Album: Portraits and Biographical Sketches of the American Protestant Missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, Hawaii : Hawaiian Mission Children's Society, 1969).
The archives of the ABCFM, located at Harvard University, contain the official ABCFM missionary reports, located through out the world during the 19th and 20th centuries. Personal correspondence and photographs typically remained in individual families and can be found in numerous repositories.
The container list is fairly self-explanatory and descriptive. Folder 3 contains photocopies of Aurelia Elizabeth Snow, Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow's sister, personal papers, primarily correspondence and reports from Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow, ca. 1851-1870. Note that all the photographs are cataloged on the item level and that the collection file contains copies of the individual cataloging records. The geographic names used are the spellings used in the 19th century Missionary Herald accounts and in most cases represent the colonial names. These geographic names were retained, since these are the names used consistently throughout the primary source material.
For more information on the ABCFM, see the Congregational Library card catalog. The Congregational Library holds a large collection of ABCFM printed pamphlets arranged by the country. The Congregational Library also has a microfilm copy of the ABCFM archives; see Papers of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions: Documents Administered by the Houghton Library of Harvard University. Guide to the Microfilm Collection (Woodbridge, Ct. : Research Publications International, 1994) for a name and missionary substation index to the microfilm. Note that this index is a quick source of birth and death dates and missionary lists. The Panopolist and Missionary Herald periodicals printed letters and reports received by the ABCFM headquarters. Note that the Congregational Library maintains a fairly complete card personal name index to these periodicals and that each volume of the periodical contains an extensive personal name and geographic name index. For photographs of the ABCFM offices while they were located in Congregational House, 14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., see the American Congregational Association records (RG 0004), series M. For biographical information on other missionaries in the Hawaiian Islands, see Missionary Album: Portraits and Biographical Sketches of the American Protestant Missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, Hawaii : Hawaiian Mission Children's Society, 1969).
|Folder 1||Edward T. Doane correspondence to Snows||1879|
|Folder 2||Luther H. Gulick correspondence to Edward T. Doane||1878|
|Folder 3||Aurelia Elizabeth Snow personal papers||ca.1851-1870|
|Folder 4||Benjamin Galen Snow / Account of Kusrae||1852-1857|
|Photocopy of mss. original at Bangor Theological Seminary, Bangor, Maine|
|Folder 5||Patricia H. Thurston / Children of Ebenezer Mehitable Vose Buck of Robbinston, Maine||ca.1980s|
|Photocopy of mss. original in author's possession|
|Folders 6-14||Photographs by family name, one folder of nonfamily photographs, including Kamehameha III, King of the Hawaiian Islands||1813-1854|
|Folder 1||Lydia Snow correspondence to Mary (sister)||1881|
|Folder 2||Lydia Snow corresponence to Sarah (Buck) Albee (sister)||1858|
|Folder 3||Lydia Snow correspondence to Percival Byrne (brother-in-law)||1860|
|Folder 4||H. E. Farnsworth correspondence to Mr. Richardson||1877|
|Folder 5||Buck family correspondence
|Folder 6||Miscellaneous papers||1874-1880; n.d.|
|Folder 7||Correspondence of Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow||1838-1879|
|Folder 8||Lydia Snow correspondence to Julia Buck Byrne||1851-1882|
|Folder 9||Lydia Snow correspondence to Ellie (niece?)||1878|
|Folder 10||Lydia Snow correspondence to Mehitable Vose Buck (mother)||1881|
|Folder 11||Lydia Snow correspondence to Albert Buck (brother)||1881|
|Box 3 -- Photographs|
|Binder -- Photocopies of correspondence with identifying notes|
alphabetical by family name, following Buck & Snow
|Captain Ebenezer Buck|
|Captain in the War of 1812; married Mehitable Vose in 1818. They had eight children, amongst them Lydia Vose Buck Snow, 1820-1887, and Julia M. Percival Byrne; the latter was the great-grandmother of the donor.|
|Mehitable Vose Buck|
|Daughter of Thomas Vose; married Captain Ebenezer Buck in 1818. Mother of Lydia Vose Buck Snow, 1820-1887.|
|Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow, 1817-1887|
|Benjamin Galen Snow was born at Brewer, Maine October 4, 1817. He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1846 and from Bangor Theological Seminary in 1849. He supplied churches in Pembroke, 1849-1850; Cooper, 1849; and Lubec, 1851. BGS was ordained at Brewer, Maine September 25, 1851 and married Lydia Vose Buck September 1, 1851. The Snows sailed from Boston November 18, 1851 aboard the Esther May to become ABCFM missionaries in Micronesia, along with the Luther Halsey Gulick, MD, 1830-1891, and his wife, Louisa Mitchell Lewis Gulick, 1830-1894. They arrived March 29, 1852 in Honolulu, after a "rough, but speedy passage"(1) At first, just the male members of the group were going to continue on and explore the islands but the "ladies have expressed a wish from the first to accompany their husbands on the exploring tour; though they are willing to be governed by the voice of the mission" (2). It was decided to approve the travel, however and "the vessel was detained two or three weeks on account of this change" (3).
On July 15, 1852 the group left Honolulu aboard the schooner Caroline. There were twenty four on board: the missionaries, Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow, Lydia Vose Buck Snow, Luther Halsey Gulick, MD, Louisa Mitchell Lewis Gulick, Rev. Albert A. Sturges, 1819-1887, Susan Mary Thompson Sturges, 1820-1894; four native assistants; and companions, Rev. Ephraim Weston Clark, 1799-1878, Mr. Kekela and Dr. Gulick's brother. The remaining eleven consisted of the captain, two mates, six Hawaiian sailors and the cook and steward, both natives (4).
August 5, the Caroline arrived at Pitt's Island, one of the Kingsmill Islands. At the town of Taritari, they met the King and his four uncles. For a more thorough account of their impressions and the dialogue, see the attached account printed in the Missionary Herald March 1853, p. 81-91. This article also gives an account of the island explorations and populations. On August 10, the Caroline sailed for Kusai/Kusaie or Strong's Island. Here they stopped to pay their respects to King George, d. 1855, and his family. On August 28, the Caroline set sail for Ponape/Bonabe or Ascension Island. On September 20, the Sturges and Gulicks settled in their new home; a Hawaiian, Kaaikaula, and his wife stayed at Ponape to help them. The Caroline sailed again for Kusai September 29 and arrived October 6. The Snows settled into their new home; a Hawaiian, Daniela Opunui, d. 1854, and his wife, stayed to help them with the new mission (5). For an account of their home, see the printed account in the Missionary Herald 1854, p. 51.
The smallpox had grave effects on the Ponape population from May to September 1854; the population was reduced to half its former size (6). August 28, 1859 the missionaries held their first meeting, traveling to Kusai aboard the Morning Star . In 1864, the Snows went to the Ebon Island mission to join D. Hapali, a Hawaiian missionary, during Edward T. Doane's visit to the United States.
The Snows returned home on a visit from 1868-1871 and again in 1877, after his stroke in May 1877. Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow died in Brewer, Maine March 15, 1880 (7).
|Lydia Vose Buck Snow, 1820-1887|
|Lydia Vose Buck Snow was born in Robbinston, Maine October 26, 1820, as the second child of Ebenezer Buck and Mehitable Vose Buck. She married Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow October 4, 1817 at Brewer, Maine; November 18, 1851 the Snows sailed from Boston aboard the Esther May and arrived in Honolulu March 29, 1852. The Snows started a mission on the Micronesian island of Kusai; they were stationed at Ponape from 1852-ca.1877. Following Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow's death May 1, 1880, Lydia Vose Buck Snow returned to Kusai as a missionary. Due to poor health, she returned to the United States in 1882, Lydia Vose Buck Snow died May 18, 1887 at the Missionary Home in Auburndale, Mass. (8).|
|Caroline Snow, b. 1856|
|Caroline (Carrie) Snow was oldest child of Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow, 1817-1887 and Lydia Vose Buck Snow, 1820-1887. She was born Dec. 22, 1856, in the Caroline Islands, probably on Kusai.|
|Fred Galen Snow, b. 1858|
|Fred Galen Snow was born March 9, 1858 as the youngest child of Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow, 1817-1887, and Lydia Vose Buck Snow, 1820-1887; he was probably born on Kusai. Fred Galen Snow married Mary Rebecca Hitchcock, daughter of Judge Edurn Griffin Hitchcock and Mary Tenny Castle Hitchcock, in Hilo, Hawaii. Fred was captain of the Morning Star ; he also had a plantation in Hawaii, where he raised pineapples, sugar, coffee and cattle.|
|Rev. William Patterson Alexander, 1805-1884|
|Born in Paris, Kansas July 25, 1805, Alexander graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1830 and was ordained by the Presbytery of Cincinnati in 1831. On October 25, 1831, Rev. William Patterson Alexander married Mary A. McKinney; on November 26, 1831 the Alexanders sailed for Honolulu, arriving May 18, 1832. William Patterson Alexander was part of the initial expedition to the Marquesas Islands ca.1832-1833 to decide whether or not to establish a mission there; he was later one of the missionaries who started a mission on the Marquesas Islands. Mr. Alexander's first station in the Hawaiian Islands was at Waioli, on the island of Kauai, where he was stationed from 1834-1843.
Alexander and Dr. Armstrong's efforts to establish a boarding school for missionary children resulted in the founding of the Ponahue School, chartered in 1853 as Oahu College. Alexander was principal of Lahainaluna Seminary 1841-1856 on Maui, a high school for the purpose of educating teachers. Sedentary employment affected his health and in 1849, he took a year away from teaching and spent the year surveying land for the Hawaiian Government on East Maui. In 1855 he retired from his post at Lahainaluna, upon the advice of physicians and became the pastor of the church at Wailuku, where he spent the remaining twenty seven years of his life. In 1871 he was sent as a delegate to the Marquesas Islands and in 1872 he was sent as a delegate to the Micronesia mission. In 1874, he relinquished the theological school and it was removed to Honolulu. In 1884 he accompanied his wife to visit his son Samuel in Oakland, Calif., where he took ill and passed away (9).
|Mary Ann McKinney Alexander, 1810-1888|
|Born January 5, 1810 in Wilmington, Delaware, Mary A. McKinney married Rev. William Patterson Alexander October 25, 1831; the Alexanders sailed for Honolulu November 26, 1831, arriving May 18, 1832. Mary Ann McKinney Alexander taught school for young girls, teaching geography, arithmetic, writing and sewing; she also held a weekly religious meeting for women. She visited the United States twice with her husband, Rev. William Patterson Alexander and following his death, lived on the island of Maui. She died June 29, 1888 in Haiku on the island of Maui (10).|
|Emily Whitney Alexander, 1846-1943|
|The seventh of Rev. William Patterson Alexander, 1805-1884, and Mary Ann McKinney Alexander's, 1810-1888, nine children, Emily Whitney Alexander married Henry Perrine Baldwin.|
|Rev. Rufus Anderson, DD. LL.D., 1796-1880|
|Born at North Yarmouth, Maine as the son of Rev. Rufus Anderson on August 17, 1796; Anderson graduated from Bowdoin College 1818 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1822. He was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Missionary Rooms in Boston in 1824 and Corresponding Secretary in 1832. He visited three missions in Greece and Asia Minor in 1828-1829 and 1844; the Indian missions in 1854-1855; and the Sandwich Islands in 1863. He resigned as secretary in 1866 and was a member of the Prudential Committee from 1866-1875. He was a lecturer on foreign missions at Andover Theological Seminary in 1866 and died at Boston Highlands May 30, 1880 (11).|
|Rev. Dwight Baldwin, MD, 1798-1873|
|Dwight Baldwin was born in Durham, Conn. September 29, 1798. He first attended college at Williams, then Yale, where he graduated in 1821. He married Charlotte Fowler of Northford, Conn. December 3, 1820. He taught for several years in Kingston, Catskill and Durham, Conn., while he studied for the medical profession. Influenced by Rev. Seth Williston while he was in Durham, he abandoned his intention to become a physician, and entered the Auburn Theological Seminary, where he graduated in 1829. He approached the ABCFM about becoming a missionary and was advised to finish his medical studies; Baldwin attended Harvard University 1829-1830 but did not have time to await official recognition of his medical degree, which caused him embarrassment within the Hawaiian medical community. Dartmouth College awarded him an honorary medical degree in 1859 (12).
The Baldwins sailed from New Bedford, Mass. December 28, 1830 aboard the New England, Captain Avery F. Parker and arrived in Honolulu in June 7, 1831. The Baldwin's were stationed at Waimea, Hawaii from 1832-1835. Due to the decline of his health, Rev. Dwight Baldwin was forced to abandon his work in Waimea in 1835. Partially recovered on a voyage to Tahiti, the Baldwins began a station on the Maui island of Lahaina in 1835, a winter rendezvous point for Pacific whaling fleets and continued there until 1870. While on Lahaina, Rev. Dwight Baldwin's health was fully restored and the Baldwin's home was open to all sailors. The Baldwins visited the United States 1853-1855; there is record that Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin left Boston November 28, 1854 on the Ocean Pearl and arrived in the Sandwich Islands March 31, 1855 (13). The Baldwins remained at Lahaina until 1868, forced by partial paralysis to give up his work.
In 1862 Dwight Baldwin was a mission delegate to the Marquesas Islands; following their station at Lahaina, the Baldwins went to Honolulu, where he taught at the Theological School in Honolulu from 1872-1877. He was especially "interested in all movements to diminish the use and sale of liquor and tobacco" (14) and wrote several essays.
Rev. Dwight Baldwin died January 3, 1886 and was buried in Kawaiahao (15).
|Charlotte Fowler Baldwin, 1805-1873|
|Charlotte Fowler was born in Northford, Conn. November 7, 1805. As a young woman, she worked as a missionary in New Jersey and later in New York City. She married Rev. Dwight Baldwin, December 3, 1820 in Northford, Conn.; the Baldwins left New Bedford, Mass. in December 28, 1830 aboard the New England, Captain Avery F. Parker and arrived in Honolulu June 7, 1831. Charlotte Fowler taught native women and held daily classes in Waimea and Lahaina. She died October 2, 1873 and was buried in Kawaiahao. See Dr. Anderson's History of the Sandwich Islands Mission for details of her work in Lahaina, particularly amongst the female population (16).|
|Hiram Bingham II, 1831-1908|
|Hiram Bingham was born August 16, 1831 in Honolulu, Oahu, the sixth child of Hiram Bingham, 1789-1869, and Sybil Moseley Bingham, 1792-1848, early Hawaiian missionaries, who sailed from Boston 1819. Hiram returned to the United States on the Flora in 1840 at the age of 10 years, along with two of his siblings Elizabeth Kaahumanu, 1829-1899 and Lydia Bingham, 1834-1915, m. Titus Coan. He attended Williston Seminary in Easthampton, Mass. and graduated from Yale in 1853. Upon graduation, he served as school principal one year and visited Europe the following year. Upon his return in 1856, he entered Andover Theological Seminary but could not finish the course, due to poor health. He was ordained in New Haven November 9, 1856 and on November 18, 1856 he married Miss Clara Brewster in Northhampton, Mass. They sailed from Boston December 2, 1856 in the first Morning Star , Captain Moore and arrived in Honolulu April 24, 1857. They reached Ponape September 23, 1857 in the same vessel; on November 9, they began a mission at Apia or Apaiang, one of the Kingsmill Islands. For an account of Apia, see the Missionary Herald 1858 p. 179-183.
The Binghams visited the United States September 8, 1965 and sailed from Boston November 12, 1866 aboard the second Morning Star , with Hiram Bingham II as the captain; note that Bingham was first captain of the second Morning Star . The Morning Star arrived in Honolulu March 13, 1867 and toured the mission churches in the Marquesas Islands and made a circuit of Micronesia, returning to Honolulu in 1868.
Hiram Bingham II resided in Honolulu, translating the Bible into the language of the Gilbert Islands. Bingham was also the author of a hymn and tune book, Bible dictionary and commentary on the Gospels, all in the language of the Gilbert Islands.
In 1873, Bingham made a second attempt at living on Apaiang. This trip was almost fatal and he returned to Honolulu in 1875 by way of Samoa, Fiji and Australia.
In 1887 Bingham visited San Francisco with his wife, to oversee a printing of the Bible Hiram Bingham II was Secretary of the Hawaiian Board 1877-1880 and in 1895 Yale conferred upon Bingham the title of Doctor of Divinity. He died October 25, 1908 in Baltimore, Maryland (17).
|Minerva Clarissa Brewster Bingham, 1834-1903|
|Minerva Clarissa Brewster was born October 19, 1834 in Northampton, Mass.; she received part of her education at Williston Seminary. She married Rev. Hiram Bingham II November 18, 1856; the Binghams sailed from Boston December 2, 1856 aboard the first Morning Star , Captain Moore as missionaries to Micronesia. Mrs. Bingham assisted her husband in translating the Bible into the language of the Gilbert language and "in addition...translated and prepared all the school text-books [sic.] for the people of the Gilbert Islands; namely geographies, a smaller and larger form, an arithmetic; a reader, Old Testament stories; and a Dail Bible Reader, all in the Gilbertese language" (18). Minerva Clarissa Brewster Bingham died November 13, 1903 in Honolulu.|
|Ellen Mariner Bond Bicknell, 1841-1922|
|Ellen Mariner Bond was the first of ten children of Rev. Elias Bond, 1813-1896, b. Hallowell, Maine, and Ellen Mariner Howell Bond, 1817-1881, b. Portland Maine. Ellen's parents, Elias and Ellen Bond sailed from Boston November 14, 1840 aboard the Gloucester, Captain Esterbrook and arrived in Honolulu May 21, 1841. The Bonds were stationed at Kohala, where they lived for 55 years. Rev. Bond founded a Select Boys' Boarding School in 1842, which merged in 1878 with the first Government English School in the district of Ainakea. In 1874 he founded the Kohala (Mauna Oliva) Girls' School in 1874. In 1861 he began the Kohala Sugar Plantation. Ellen Mariner Bond married James Bicknell (19).|
|Benjamin Davis Bond, 1853-1930|
|The sixth child of Elias and Ellen Mariner Howell Bond, Benjamin married Emma Mary Renton (20) (see his sister's Ellen Mariner Bond Bicknell, 1841-1942, biography).|
|Abby Steele Bond, 1859-1943|
|The ninth child of Elias and Ellen Mariner Howell Bond (21)
(also see her sister Ellen Mariner Bond Bicknell's biography).
|Brewster, Clarissa Allen Brewster, 1812-1895|
|Born December 3, 1812 in Northampton, Mass., as the daughter of Elijah and Electa Warner Allen. Married Captain Jonathan Brewster, 1817-1874; CABB was JB's second wife. Mother of Minerva Brewster Bingham, 1834-1903. Died in Springfield, Mass. May 26, 1895.|
|Rev. Charles Peck Bush, 1813-1880|
|Born in Brighton, NY November 11, 1813, Bush attended the New Haven Theological Seminary 1837-1839 and graduated from the Union Theological Seminary in 1840. Bush was the pastor of Tenth Presbyterian Church, New York, NY; Greenville, Norwich, Conn.; New England Congregational Church, Chicago, Ill.; First Presbyterian Church, Beloit, Wisc.; District Secretary of the American Tract Society (Boston) in New York City, 1860-1863; District Secretary of the ABCFM at Rochester, NY, 1863-1871; District Secretary and General Agent of the ABCFM in New York City, 1871-1880. In 1867 Hamilton College conferred upon him an honorary doctorate of divinity degree. He died in Albany, NY February 22, 1880. His daughter, Caroline, was a missionary for ten years in Harpoot, Turkey (see entry for Caroline C. Bush, 1847-1919) (22).|
|Caroline C. Bush, 1847-1919|
|Born in 1847 in Greenville, Conn., Miss Bush was the daughter of Charles P. Bush and was the youngest of a group of ABCFM missionaries stationed at Harpoot, Turkey for over thirty years. This group consisted of Dr. and Mrs. Herman W. Barnum, Mrs. and Mrs. Orson P. Allen, Miss Harriet Seymour and Miss Caroline Bush. Harriet Seymour and Caroline Bush "had the direction and care of the evangelistic work for native women in the entire field, covering an area as large as the state of Massachusetts" (23). Caroline C. Bush died in Auburndale, Mass. November 26, 1919.|
|Maria Patten Chamberlain, 1803-1880|
|Born in Salisbury, Penn. Maria Patten, a school teacher, sailed from Boston November 3, 1827 aboard the Parthian. She married Levi Chamberlain, 1792-1849, at Lahaina September 1, 1828. She visited the United States in 1859 and died January 19, 1880 in Honolulu (24).
Maria Patten Chamberlain's husband Levi Chamberlain, 1792-1849, was born in Dover, Vermont and sailed aboard the Thames from New Haven, Conn. November 19, 1822. He died at Honolulu July 29, 1849.
|Possibly the daughter of Levi Chamberlain, 1792-1849, and Maria Patten Chamberlain, 1803-1880.|
|Rev. Titus Coan, 1801-1882|
|Born February 1, 1801 in Killingworth, Connecticut, Titus Coan was a first lieutenant in the militia. A religious revival in his native town greatly affected his decision to become a missionary. He graduated from Auburn Theological Seminary, New York in 1833 and was ordained at Boston August 4, 1833. From 1833-1834, Coan was a missionary explorer to Patagonia.
Titus Coan married Fidelia Church, 1810-1872, November 3, 1834 in Churchville, N.Y. The Coans sailed from Boston December 5, 1834 aboard the Hellespont, Captain Henry and arrived in Honolulu June 6, 1835. The Coans were stationed at Hilo, Hawaii 1835-1853. See Missionary Herald 1852 p. 355-356 for an account of the church at Hilo and a visit to Puna to view the volcanic crater of Kilauea. Titus Coan was a 1860 and 1867 delegate to the Hawaiian Mission in the Marquesas Islands; the Coans visited the United States in 1870-1871 and pastored the Hilo church until his death in 1882 (25). Also see Coan's autobiographical sketch Life in Hawaii.
Fidelia Coan died September 29, 1872 in Hilo, Hawaii. Titus Coan married Lydia Bingham Coan October 13, 1873 in Honolulu, Oahu; Lydia Bingham was the sister of Hiram Bingham II and the daughter of Hiram Bingham, 1789-1869, and Sybil Moseley Bingham, 1792-1848, early Hawaiian missionaries (26).
|Fidelia Church Coan, 1810-1872|
|Fidelia Church was born February 17, 1810 in Riga, New York and taught at the Middleburg Female Seminary, Vermont. She married Titus Coan November 3, 1834 in Churchville, N.Y.; the Coans sailed from Boston December 5, 1834 aboard the Hellespont, Captain Henry and arrived in Honolulu June 6, 1835. The Coans were stationed at Hilo, Hawaii 1835-1853. Fidelia Church Coan taught boarding school for native girls in Hilo and Puna from 1838-1846. She died September 29, 1872 in Hilo, Hawaii (27).|
|Rev. Samuel Chenery Damon, 1815-1885|
|Born February 15, 1815 in Holden, Mass., Samuel Damon graduated from Amherst College in 1836 and in 1837 was the principal of Academy, Salisbury, Conn. He began his theological training at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1838 and finished his theological training at Andover Theological Seminary in 1841. He was ordained September 15, 1841 and married Julia Sherman Mills October 6, 1841 in Natick, Mass. In 1867 he received an honorary doctorate of divinity from Amherst College (28).
Samuel Damon was sent by the American Seamen's Friend Society to be chaplain in Honolulu. The Damons sailed from New York March 10, 1842 aboard the Victoria, Captain Spring and arrived in Honolulu October 19, 1842. He was the pastor of the Bethel Union Church, Seamen's Chapel for 42 years and was the publisher of the periodical The Friend from 1843-1884 (29).
In 1849 Samuel Dole visited Oregon and California; in 1851, the United States; in 1861, Micronesia, as a delegate of the Hawaiian Board; 1869-1870 the United States, Europe, Palestine and Egypt; in 1876 the United States; in 1880 England and the Continent; and in 1884 China and Japan. While in the Hawaiian Islands "he served Sailors' Home, Stranger's Friend Society, Oahu College (Punahou School) Board, the Queen's Hospital and Hawaiian Board of Missions" (30). Rev. Samuel Chenery Damon died February 7, 1885 in Honolulu.
|Julia Sherman Mills Damon, 1817-1890|
|Julia Sherman Mills was born August 20, 1817 in Torringford, Conn. She married Samuel Chenery Damon October 6, 1841 in Natick, Mass. The Damons sailed from New York March 10, 1842 aboard the Victoria, Captain Spring and arrived in Honolulu October 19, 1842. Julia Sherman Mills Damon was the first president of the Stranger's Friend Society; she died June 19, 1890 in Cheyenne City, Wyoming (31).|
|Rev. Daniel Dole, 1801-1878|
|Rev. Daniel Dole was born September 9, 1808 in Bloomfield (now Skowhegan), Maine. He graduated from Bowdoin College 1836 and Bangor Theological Seminary in 1839. He was ordained at Bloomfield, Maine in 1840 and married Emily Hoyt Ballard, 1807-1844, October 2, 1840 in Gardiner, Maine. Daniel Dole and Emily Hoyt Ballard sailed from Boston aboard the Gloucester, Captain Easterbrook and arrived in Honolulu May 21, 1841. Emily died April 27, 1844 in Honolulu; Daniel Dole married Charlotte Close Knapp, 1813-1874, June 22, 1846 in Honolulu, Oahu. Daniel Dole was the principal of the Punahou School; he resigned in 1855 to become the pastor and teacher at Koloa, Kauai. Rev. Daniel Dole died August 26, 1878 in Kapaa, Kauai (32).|
|Charlotte Close Knapp Dole, 1813-1874|
|Charlotte Close Knapp Dole was born May 26, 1813 in Greenwich, Conn. She sailed from Boston December 14, 1836 with her first husband, Horton Owen Knapp, aboard the Mary Frazier, Captain Charles Sumner; they arrived in Honolulu April 9, 1837. The Doles were stationed at Waimea, Hawaii from 1837-1838 and Lahainaluna 1838-1839. They went to Honolulu in 1839; Horton Owen Knapp died in 1845 in Honolulu.
Charlotte Close Knapp Dole married Daniel Dole June 22, 1846 in Honolulu, Oahu. As a Hebrew, Greek and Latin scholar, Charlotte assisted her husband Rev. Daniel Dole as principal at the Punahou School and at his school in Koloa, Kauai. She died July 5, 1874 in Honolulu (33).
|George Hathaway Dole, 1842-1912|
|George Hathaway Dole was the oldest of Daniel Dole and Emily Hoyt Ballard two sons. He married Clara Maria Rowell; his younger brother Sanford Ballard was the president of the Republic and the first governor of Hawaii (34).|
|Rev. John S. Emerson, 1800-1867|
|Born December 28, 1800 in Chester, New Hampshire, John S. Emerson graduated from Dartmouth College in 1826. He attended Andover Theological Seminary from 1827-1830 and was ordained at Meredith Bridge, New Hampshire May 19, 1831. In 1827 he was the headmaster of Moore's Charity School and in 1860, Dartmouth College conferred upon him an honorary doctorate of medicine.
Emerson married Ursula Sophia Newell October 25, 1831 in Nelson, New Hampshire; the Emersons sailed from New Bedford, Mass. November 26, 1831 aboard the whaling ship the Averick, Captain Swain, arriving in Honolulu May 17, 1832.
From 1832-1842 the Emersons were stationed at the Waialua mission; from 1842-1846 the Lahainaluna Seminary and from 1846-1864 again at Waialua. Rev. John Anderson resigned in 1864, although the Emersons remained in Waialua until their deaths. In 1860 the Emersons visited the United States and in 1865, Emerson was a mission delegate to Micronesia.
Between 1835-1837 Emerson translated Daily Food and First Teacher for Children, along with some introductory text books. He died March 26, 1867 in Wailua, Oahu (35).
|Ursula Sophia Newell Emerson, 1806-1888|
|Ursula Sophia Newell was born September 27, 1806 in Nelson, New Hampshire. She married Rev. John S. Emerson October 25, 1831 in Nelson, New Hampshire; the Emersons sailed from New Bedford, Mass. November 26, 1831 aboard the whaling ship the Averick, Captain Swain, arriving in Honolulu May 17, 1832. Ursula Sophia Newell Emerson died November 24, 1888 in Wailua, Oahu (36).|
|The Gulicks were an early missionary family in the Sandwich Islands and Micronesia; Rev. Peter Johnson Gulick, 1796-1877, and his wife, Fanny Hinkley Thomas Gulick, 1798-1883, were already on Wailua in 1852, when the Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow and Lydia Vose Buck Snow arrived (37). Rev. Peter J. Johnson and Fanny Hinkley Thomas Gulick sailed from Boston November 3, 1827 aboard the Parthian, Captain Richard D. Blinn, arriving in Honolulu March 30, 1828. From 1835-1843, the Gulicks were stationed at Waimea, Kauai; and from 1843-1846 at Kaluaaha, where Peter Johnson Gulick was the superintendent of Molokai schools; and from 1846-1857 at Wailua. Peter Johnson Gulick retired in 1857 to live in Honolulu, where he was a trustee of the Punahou School. Seven of their children became missionaries. The Gulicks spent their older years in Kobe, Japan, where their son Orramell Hinckley Gulick, 1830-1923, was a missionary. Peter Johnson Gulick died December 8, 1877 and Fanny Hinkley Thomas Gulick died Mary 24, 1883, both in Kobe, Japan (38).
Rev. Luther Halsey Gulick, MD, 1830-1891, was born June 10, 1828 in Honolulu, Oahu as the oldest son of Peter Johnson Gulick and Fanny Hinkley Thomas Gulick. He received his education at the Auburn Academy, New York; he attended the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1847 and in 1850 received his doctorate of medical from New York University. He attended Union Theological Seminary and was ordained October 5, 1851. Luther Halsey Gulick married Louisa Mitchell Lewis October 29, 1851 in New York, N.Y.; the Gulicks sailed from Boston November 18, 1851 aboard the Esther May to become ABCFM missionaries in Micronesia, along with Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow and his wife Lydia Vose Buck Snow. The Gulicks and Snows arrived in Honolulu March 29, 1852. During his visit to Hawaii, Luther Halsey Gulick was one of the main organizers of the Hawaiian Mission Children's Society (39).
Luther Halsey Gulick and Louisa Mitchell Lewis Gulick sailed on board the Caroline with Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow, Lydia Vose Buck Snow, Rev. Albert A. Sturges and Susan Mary Thompson Sturges from Honolulu to the island of Ponape in 1852 (see also the biography of Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow for more details). In 1859 the Gulicks were stationed in the Marshall Islands on Ebon. Due to failing health, Luther Halsey Gulick visited Hawaii in 1860 and went to the Marquesas Islands as a delegate. He traveled to California, where he secured financial pledges for the missionary work in Micronesia. From 1862-1863 he continued his public speaking in New York and then returned to Hawaii to become the secretary of the Hawaiian Evangelical Association; he served in this capacity from 1864-1870. From 1871-1874 the Gulicks were stationed in Spain and Italy and from 1876-1890 did work for the American Bible Society in Japan and China. Luther Halsey Gulick died April 8, 1891 in Springfield, Mass. (40).
Louisa Mitchell Lewis Gulick, 1830-1894, was born November 10, 1830 in New York, N.Y.; she received her education at Rutgers Seminary, New York, N.Y., taught in North Carolina and worked as a missionary in New York City with her mother. She married Rev. Luther Halsey Gulick October 29, 1851 in New York, N.Y.; the Gulicks sailed from Boston November 18, 1851 aboard the Esther May to become ABCFM missionaries in Micronesia, along with Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow and his wife Lydia Vose Buck Snow. The Gulicks and Snows arrived in Honolulu March 29, 1852 (see Luther Halsey Gulick's biography for more detail). Louisa Mitchell Lewis Gulick also did translations in the Ponape language (41).
After Luther Halsey Gulick's death, Mrs. Gulick returned to Japan, where two of her children Sidney L. and Hattie (married to Rev. Cyrus A. Clark), were missionaries. She lived with her daughter, Mrs. Cyrus A. Clark, at Miyazaki, on the island of Kiushiu. She died in Kobe, Japan June 14, 1894 (42).
Orramell Hinkley Gulick, 1830-1923, was the son of Rev. Peter Johnson Gulick, 1796-1877, and Fanny Hinkley Thomas Gulick, 1798-1883. Born October 7, 1830 in Honolulu, Oahu, he married Ann Eliza Clark May 19, 1855. In 1857, Orramell Hinkley Gulick was the second mate of the Morning State and in 1859 was the first mate. From 1862-1865, the Gulicks were missionaries at Waiohinu, where Orramell Hinkley Gulick taught at the Kau Female Seminary. From 1865-1869, Gulick was principal of the Waialua Girls' Board School; from 1870-1892, the Gulicks were stationed in Kobe, Japan (43).
Ann Eliza Clark, 1833-1938, was born August 8, 1833 in Honolulu, the child of the missionaries Mrs. and Mrs. Ephraim W. Clark. She was educated at Punahou School, Hawaii and Mt. Holyoke Seminary, Massachusetts. She assisted her husband, Orramell Hinkley Gulick in organizing a female family boarding school and served with him in the Hawaiian Islands and Japan. She died October 9, 1838 in Honolulu (44).
|Julia Ann Eliza Gulick, 1845-1936|
|Julia Ann Eliza Gulick was the youngest of Peter Johnson Gulick and Fanny Hinckley Thomas Gulick's eight children and the sister of Rev. Luther Halsey Gulick, MD (45). Julia Ann Eliza Gulick became a missionary to Japan in 1874 and remained for over 30 years. July 14, 1908 she returned to San Francisco from Japan (46); this is the last mention of her name in the Missionary Herald.|
|Katherine Gulick, b. 1878|
|The youngest of Orramell Hinckley Gulick and Ann Eliza Clark Gulick's adopted children, Katherine married George Enyeart Hooven and later Frederic Charles Woodrough (47).|
|Gerritt Parmele Judd, 1803-1873|
|Born April 23, 1803 in Paris, New York, Gerrit Parmele Judd graduated from Medical College, Fairfield, New York in 1825. He married Laura Fish Judd September 20, 1827 in Clinton, N.Y. and sailed from Boston November 3, 1827 aboard the Parthian, Captain Richard D. Blinn; they arrived in Honolulu March 20, 1828. In 1839 Dr. Judd became a trustee of the Chiefs' Children's' School, in order to take care of the royal children. He ended his connection with the ABCFM April 1842 to become a translator and recorder for the Hawaiian government and later, a member of the Treasury Board and businessman. He was appointed as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs November 1843 and March 1845, he became Minister of the Interior. He was appointed Commissioner to France, Great Britain and the United States September 10, 1849; the princes Alexander and Lot traveled to these countries with him, returning in 1850. September 1853 Gerritt Parmelee Judd resigned from the government and resumed his medical practice (48).|
|Laura Fish Judd, 1804-1872|
|Laura Fish was born April 2, 1804 in Plainfield, N.Y. and began teaching school when she was 16. She married Gerrit Parmele Judd September 20, 1827 in Clinton, New York; the Judds sailed from Boston November 3, 1827 aboard the Parthian, Captain Richard D. Blinn and arrived in Honolulu March 20, 1828. She wrote Honolulu, Sketches of life...in the Hawaiian Islands from 1828-1861. She died October 2, 1872 in Honolulu (49).|
|Lucia Garratt Smith Lyons, 1808-1892|
|Lucia Garratt Smith was born April 17, 1808 in Butternuts, N.Y. and in 1836 was a teacher for the ABCFM on the Tuscarora Reservation, N.Y. She sailed on the Mary Frazier, Captain Charles Sumner December 14, 1836 with her sister Marcia and arrived in Honolulu April 9, 1837. Lucia Smith was stationed at Lahainaluna 1837-1838; she married Lorenzo Lyons July 14, 1838 and went with him to his station at Waimea, Hawaii. Lizzie Garratt Smith Lyons died April 27, 1892 in Waimea (50).|
|Miss Maria Ogden, 1792-1874|
|Born February 17, 1792 in Philadelphia, Penn., Maria Ogden sailed from Boston November 3, 1827 aboard the Parthian, Captain Richard D. Blinn and arrived at Honolulu March 30, 1828. During 1828 she was stationed at Waimea, Kauai, where she assisted the Peter Johnson Gulick family (see Gulick biography); from 1829-1838 she went to Lahaina and assisted the William Richards family, teaching a school for girls in the morning and a school for boys in the afternoon. In 1838 she went to the Wailuku Female Seminary and taught there for twenty years. From 1858-1859 she was the manager of domestic affairs at the Punahou School and in 1859 she began the Makiki Female Seminary; she remained there until 1868, when she retired and the school closed. She adopted two orphan girls, Ellen Holden, 1842-1899, m. Joseph Preston Sisson, and Isabella Holden, 1844-1893, m. Jonathan Bates Dickson and Henry Johnson (51). Maria Ogden died suddenly April 3, 1874 in Honolulu on, after a fall on the way home from a meeting of the Woman's Benevolent Society (52).|
|Mary Aletta Paris, 1841-1925|
|Mary Aletta Paris was the oldest daughter of Rev. John Davis Paris, 1809-1892, and Mary Grant Paris, 1807-1847. She later married James Edward Green.
Rev. John Davis Paris was born September 2, 1809 in Staunton, Va.; he graduated from Bangor Theological Seminary in 1839 and was ordained in Bangor, Maine, August, 29, 1839. He married Mary Grant Paris October 25, 1840 in New York, N.Y.; the Paris' sailed from Boston November 14, 1840 aboard the Gloucester, Captain Easterbrook and arrived in Honolulu May 21, 1841. He died July 28, 1892 in Kealakekua, Hawaii (53).
Mary Carpenter was born January 21, 1815 in New York, N.Y. She married Rev. John Davis Paris, 1809-1892, September 7, 1851 in Boston, Mass.; the Paris' sailed from Boston March 28, 1852, expecting to start a new mission with Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow and Lydia Vose Buck Snow. Rev. Paris was previously married to Mary Grant, who died in Hawaii; he married Mary Carpenter when he returned to the United States for a visit. Mary Carpenter Paris died August 18, 1896 in Kealakekua, Hawaii (54). John Davis Paris published his reminiscences as Fragments of Real Missionary Life (1926).
|Rev. Benjamin Wyman Parker, 1803-1877|
|Benjamin Wyman Parker was born October 13, 1803 in Reading, Mass. He graduated from Amherst College in 1829 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1832. The Parkers sailed from New London, Conn. November 21, 1832 for the Sandwich Islands. The Marquesas Islands was the Parker's first mission; following an unsuccessful attempt to start the mission, the Parkers were stationed at Kaneohe, on the island of Oahu; there is a record that they were still at Kaneohe in 1852, when the Snows arrived in the Sandwich Islands (55). Benjamin Parker was the principal of the Native Hawaiian Theological School and in 1876 the Parkers visited the United States. Rev. Benjamin Parker died in Honolulu March 23, 1877 (56).|
|Mary Elizabeth Barker Parker, 1805-1907|
|Born December 9, 1805 in Branford, Conn., Mary Elizabeth Barker married Rev. Benjamin Wyman Parker September 24, 1832 in Guilford, Conn. They sailed from New London, Conn. November 21, 1832 aboard the Mentor, Captain Rice and arrived in Honolulu May 1, 1833. Following Rev. Benjamin Parker's death in 1877, Mary E. Parker lived with her children in Honolulu. Mary Elizabeth died in Honolulu September 29, 1907 in Honolulu (57).|
|Annie and Bennie Parker|
|Rev. George Pierson, d. 1895|
|Nancy Shaw Pierson, d. 1892|
|Rev. George Pierson of Jacksonville, Ill. and Mrs. Nancy Shaw Pierson of August, Ill. were missionaries to the Choctaw in 1852; they transferred to Micronesia in 1854. The Piersons were missionaries on Ponape, in the Marshall Islands, from 1855-1860. They arrived on Strong's Island October 1855, alleviating the loneliness of Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow and Lydia Vose Buck Snow. For an account of the Pierson's arrival, see the Missionary Herald 1856 p. 313-314. The Piersons started a new station on Ebon Island, one of the Ralik Islands, in 1859. For an account of Ebon, see the Missionary Herald 1858 p. 183-185. The Piersons went to California in 1861, due to ill health.|
|George and Salome Pierson|
|Hattie J. Sturges|
|Rev. Albert A. Sturges, 1819-1887|
|Albert A. Sturges was born in Granville, Ohio; he graduated from Wabash College in 1848 and Yale Theological Seminary in 1851. Albert A. Sturges married Susan Mary Thompson of Granville, Ohio on January 11, 1852 and on January 17, 1852, they sailed from Boston in the Snow Squall, Captain Bursley and arrived July 15, 1852, to proceed on to Micronesia with missionaries destined for those islands (see Rev. Benjamin Galen Snow's biography). Albert A. Sturges was a missionary on Ponape from 1852-1884 (58). For a partial printing of Albert A. Sturges' journal, see the Missionary Herald 1860, p. 34-36. Albert A. Sturges died in Oakland, Calif. September 4, 1887 (59).|
|Susan Mary Thompson Sturges, 1820-1894|
|Susan Mary Thompson Sturges was a missionary on Ponape from 1852-1881; she lived in Oakland, Calif. for five years, following her husband's death in 1887. She moved to Los Angeles in 1892, where one of her daughters resided. She died in Los Angeles December 5, 1894. Another daughter survived her, Mrs. M. A. Crawford, who worked with her husband as a missionary in Mexico (60).|
|Kamehameha III, King of the Hawaiian Islands, 1813-1854.|
|Kamehameha III and his chiefs drafted the first constitution in 1840. Under Kamehameha III the legislature passed a law establishing the first public school and abolishing the feudal land system. He succeeded his brother, Kamehameha II, following Kamehameha's death in 1824 in England.|
|Rev. William Patterson Alexander|
|Principal of the Ponahue School.|
|Dr. Charles Kittredge|
(1) Missionary Herald, 1852, p. 220.
(2) Ibid., p. 23.
(4) Ibid. 1885, p. 355.
(5) Ibid. 1853, p. 87-90.
(6) Ibid. 1856, p. 10.
(8) Ibid. 1887, p. 265.
(9) Edwin Musell Bliss. The Encyclopedia of Missions: Descriptive, Historical, Biographical, Statistical. Vol. 1. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, p. 39-40; Missionary Herald 1885, p. 102-104.
(10) Missionary Album: Portraits and Biographical Sketches of the American Protestant Missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands. Honolulu, Hawaii: Hawaiian Mission Children's Society, 1969, p. 21.
(11) Ibid. 1880, p. 247-251.
(12) Ibid., p. 36.
(13) Missionary Herald 1874, p. 40.
(14) Ibid. 1874, p. 40.
(15) Ibid. 1886, p. 92-93; Missionary Album, p, 37.
(16) Ibid. 1874, p. 39-40; Missionary Album, p. 37.
(17) Ibid. 1908, p. 563-565, photo p. 554, Missionary Album, p. 44-45.
(18) Ibid. 1904, p. 13-14, photo p. 13; Missionary Album, p. 45.
(19) Missionary Album, p. 54-55.
(20) Ibid., p. 55.
(22) Missionary Herald 1880, p. 126-127.
(23) Missionary Herald 1920, p. 13.
(24) Ibid. 1880, p. 112; Rufus Anderson. History of the Mission of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to the Sandwich Islands. Boston: Congregational Publishing Board, 1874, p. 381.
(25) Ibid. 1885, p. 50-52; Missionary Album, p. 70-71).
(26) Missionary Herald 1908, p. 561.
(27) Missionary Album, p. 71.
(28) Ibid., p. 76.
(30) Ibid.,, p. 77.
(31) Ibid.,, p. 77.
(32) Ibid.,, p. 85.
(33) Ibid., p. 85, 133.
(34) Ibid., p. 85.
(35) Ibid., p. 92-93.
(36) Ibid., p. 93.
(37) Missionary Herald, 1852, p. 10.
(38) Missionary Album, p. 110-111.
(39) Ibid., p. 106-107.
(41) Ibid., p. 107.
(42) Missionary Herald 1894, p. 361.
(43) Missionary Album, p. 108.
(44) Ibid., p. 109.
(45) Ibid., p. 111.
(46) Missionary Herald 1908, p. 436.
(47) Missionary Album, p. 109.
(48) Ibid., p. 128-129.
(49) Ibid., p. 129.
(50) Ibid., p. 145.
(51) Missionary Herald 1874, p. 197.
(52) Missionary Album, p. 150-151.
(53) Ibid., p. 152-153.
(54) Ibid., p. 152-153.
(55) Missionary Herald 1852, p. 10.
(56) Edwin Musell Bliss. The Encyclopedia of Missions: Descriptive, Historical, Biographical, Statistical. Vol. 2. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, p. 208-209; Missionary Herald 1907, p. 577.
(57) Missionary Album, p. 55.
(58) Bliss, Theodora. Micronesia, fifty years in the island world: a history of the mission of the American Board. Boston: American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 1906, p. 161.
(59) Missionary Herald 1887, p. 429-430.
(60) Ibid., 1894, p. 50, photo.